'Author's Routes in Asiatic Turkey', c1915. Creator: Stanford's Geographical Establishment
'Author's Routes in Asiatic Turkey', c1915. Map showing the journeys of British writer, soldier and diplomatic advisor Mark Sykes (1879-1919) who travelled through Palestine, Iraq, Syria, Persia and Turkey between 1905 and 1913. Sykes was honorary attache to the British Embassy in Constantinople 1905-1906, was elected to parliament, worked in the Intelligence department of the War Office during the First World War, and died of the Spanish flu aged 39. From "The Caliphs' Last Heritage, a short history of the Turkish Empire" by Lt.-Col. Sir Mark Sykes. [Macmillan & Co, London, 1915]
© The Print Collector/Heritage Images
Peacock-shaped Hand Washing Device (recto); Text Page, Arabic Prose (verso), 1315
Peacock-shaped Hand Washing Device (recto); Text Page, Arabic Prose (verso), 1315. This leaf from a 1315 Syrian copy of Ibn al-Razzaz al-Jazari's The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices , written in 1206, depicts a peacock basin automaton for ritual hand washing. There are 15 surviving manuscript copies of al-Jazari's work, ranging from the early 13th to the late 19th century. An engineer from upper Mesopotamia, al-Jazari was in the service of King Nasri al-Din when he completed his masterwork, an anthology of automated devices including clocks, trick vessels for drinking sessions, devices for washing, fountains, water-raising machines, and measuring instruments. His designs clearly illustrate that automata were not innovations from Western Europe, but they stemmed from a tradition known in the ancient, Islamic, and Byzantine worlds. We do not know with certainty that al-Jazari's device was ever actually constructed.
© Heritage Art/Heritage Images
The early 12th century seat of the Order of the Assassins
The early 12th century seat of the Order of the Assassins. For two centuries these dedicated terrorists brought fear to the hearts of the Muslim population. Then in a single relentless campaign, the Mongul Hulagu, Mangu's brother and his general Ked-Buka destroyed them. Country of Origin: Syria. Culture: Islamic. Date/Period: 12th C AD. Place of Origin: Masyaf, near Hama. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive/.
© Werner Forman Archive / Heritage-Images