First telegraph despatch from Lyon, 4 March 1815, (1921). Creator: Unknown
First telegraph despatch from Lyon, 4 March 1815, (1921). 'Premiere depeche telegraphique de Lyon'. Message sent via French inventor Claude Chappe's (1763-1805) optical telegraph (semaphore) system, devised in 1793. Messages were converted into semaphore using movable arms on the tops of repeater towers which were placed from 12 to 25 km (10 to 20 miles) apart. The message was read through a telescope, then relayed it to the next tower. Messages sent from Paris could reach the outer fringes of the country in a matter of three or four hours. Before, it had taken despatch riders on horseback a similar number of days. Chappe's system was in use until about 1850 when electric telegraph systems replaced it. This message states that the 'emperor has arrived on the coast of France with 1600 men'. Facsimile document from "Napoleon", by Raymond Guyot, [H. Floury, Paris, 1921]
© The Print Collector/Heritage Images
'Arch of Victory', c1950. Creator: Shirley Markham
'Arch of Victory', c1950. 'Arch of Victory, built by order of Napoleon; Paris; Louvre. White marble, with pink marble pillars and entablatures, gilt'. One of the Parisian triumphal arches designed in Neoclassical style to recall the monumental architecture of Ancient Rome, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel was built between 1806 and 1808 to commemorate Napoleon's military victories of the previous year. Shirley Markham (1931-1999) studied Graphic Design and Illustration at Central School of Art in London from 1950-1952. The writer, artist, poet, and illustrator Mervyn Peake (1911-1968) was one of her tutors, and her style of drawing was also influenced by other British illustrators such as Edward Ardizzone, Quentin Blake and Edward Bawden. Markham spent time in the Dolomite Mountains in Italy, and also visited Rome, sketching classical buildings. After graduating from Central, she worked as a graphic designer, producing book illustrations, cartoons for comics, menus and programmes. She gave up her promising career however when she got married in 1957. Middle-class women at that time were expected to devote their energies to bringing up children and running the home, and despite her obvious talent, she lacked the confidence to return to illustration. Her portfolio remained in the family attic for many years, but now her work is published here for the first time.
© Shirley Markham Collection / Heritage-Images
Battle near Jena, 14 October 1806, (c1850). Artist: Edme Bovinet
Battle near Jena, 14 October 1806, (c1850). The battle of Jena in Germany began with the chance evening meeting of Marshal Lannes' corps with a Prussian force of 35, 000 men under General Friedrich Hohenloe. At 1pm, Napoleon ordered a general advance and within two hours the exhausted Prussians gave way, fleeing the field and trying to avoid the sabres of Marshal Murat's horsemen. Jena cost Bonaparte some 5000 men, but the Prussians had a staggering 25, 000 casualties. Print from a series depicting the campaigns of Napoleon I, published c1850.
© The Print Collector / Heritage-Images