'The Battle of the Pamphleteers. Or Newark versus Newcastle', 1829. Creator: John Doyle
'The Battle of the Pamphleteers. Or Newark versus Newcastle', 1829. Political satire showing British politicians pointing guns at each other. Michael Thomas Sadler (1780-1835), Member of Parliament for Newark, is saying 'For the Wisdom of our Ancestors', while his opponent Robert Wilmot-Horton (1784-1841), Member of Parliament for Newcastle-under-Lyme, says 'For the March of Intellect'. Wilmot-Horton, who was also Governor of Ceylon, is riding a horse labelled 'Emigration'. Published by Edward McLean, Leicester Square.
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The crown resigned to the Pope's legate by King John (1167-1216), 1213. Artist: Unknown
The crown resigned to the Pope's legate by King John (1167-1216), 1213. Following a dispute between King John and Pope Innocent III regarding John's insistence on his sole right to elect a new Archbishop of Canterbury (following the death of Hubert Walter in 1205), John was excommunicated in 1209 and, in 1213, Innocent threatened stronger measures unless John submitted. The papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulph in May 1213. In addition, John offered to surrender the Kingdom of England to God and the Saints Peter and Paul for a feudal service of 1000 marks annually, 700 for England and 300 for Ireland. With this submission, John gained the valuable support of his papal overlord in his new dispute with the English barons. Engraved for Cowley's History of England.
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Christopher Scheiner's illustration of his idea of the surface of the sun, 1635. Artist: Unknown
Christopher Scheiner's illustration of his idea of the surface of the sun, 1635. German astronomer and mathematician Scheiner (1573-1650) used telescopes invented by Galileo to make over 2000 observations of the Sun, recording sunspots in the process. As a Jesuit, Scheiner held the belief that the Sun, and the heavens generally, had to be perfect, and that sunspots were shadows cast by satellites of the Sun onto its face as they passed across it. This brought him into a bitter dispute with Galileo, who was of the opinion that sunspots were features which formed on the surface of the Sun itself. Scheiner attacked Galileo in his book Rosa Ursina, before Galileo's trial before the Inquisition in 1633.
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