'Professor Faraday lecturing at the Royal Institute...1856', (1901). Creator: Unknown
'Professor Faraday lecturing at the Royal Institute before the Prince Consort and the Prince of Wales, 1856', (1901). Michael Faraday (1791-1867) giving a lecture attended by Prince Albert and his son, Prince Albert Edward (future King Edward VII). Faraday was one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century. His most significant contribution was "Experimental Researches on Electricity" which was published over 40 years, where he described his discoveries, including the laws of electromagnetic induction (1831) and the laws of electrolysis (1833). He also discovered the principles of the electric motor and dynamo. Faraday founded the famous Friday evening discourse and children's Christmas lectures at the Royal Institution in London, both of which are still given today. From "The Illustrated London News Record of the Glorious Reign of Queen Victoria 1837-1901: The Life and Accession of King Edward VII. and the Life of Queen Alexandra". [London, 1901]
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Route of the protest march to free the Tolpuddle Martyrs, (1834), 1934. Artist: Unknown
The route that the protest march to free the Tolpuddle Martyrs took. A vast demonstration took place on 21st April 1834 with up to 100, 000 people taking part. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century agricultural labourers from Dorset who were convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. The rules of the society show it was clearly structured as a friendly society and operated as a trade-specific benefit society. At the time, friendly societies had strong elements of what would now be considered trade unions. Before 1824/25 the Combination Acts had outlawed 'combining' or organising to gain better working conditions. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were subsequently sentenced to transportation to Australia. Their convictions caused public outcry and 800, 000 signatures were collected for their release. The march organised by thier supporters was one of the first successful political marches in the UK, and all, except James Hammett (who had a previous criminal record for theft) were released in 1836. From 'The Book of The Martyrs of Tolpuddle: 1834-1934', published by The Trades Union Congress General Council, 1934.
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Striking Putilov workers on the first day of the February Revolution, St Petersburg, Russia, 1917. Artist: Anon
Striking Putilov workers on the first day of the February Revolution, St Petersburg, Russia, 1917. The Putilov Plant was a large machine-building factory in St Petersburg. In 1917 it was the largest employer in the city and strikes by its workforce played an important role in bringing about the downfall of the Tsar's regime. After Soviet politician Sergei Kirov was assassinated in 1934 the plant was renamed after him. Found in the collection of the State Museum of the Political History of Russia, St Petersburg.
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