'The New Alliance', 1859
'The New Alliance', 1859. John Bull, in the shape of the British lion, dressed in hunting gear, in the company of the French Emperor, Louis Napoleon who is dressed in full military gear. Both are clutching rifles and look towards the eastern horizon over which can be seen the Chinese dragon looking suitably warlike. In 1858, China had been brought to sign the Treaty of Tientsin which allowed France and Britain a number of commercial concessions. It also renewed the terms of the Treaty of Nanking between Britain and China, originally signed in 1842 to end the Opium War. By September 1859, it had become clear that China was not going to honour its promise of commercial concessions to France and Britain. The French had recently been engaged in fighting in the Franco-Austrian conflict, and Britain had been ploughing funds into upgrading her defences in case of French invasion. Hence Napoleon's remark that, as Britain and France would be allies in any further conflict with China, it was lucky both countries' arms were in 'such good order'. From Punch, or the London Charivari, September 24, 1859.
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