Spinning Jenny, 1820. Artist: Unknown
Spinning Jenny, 1820. The Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves (c1720-1778) in 1764. On his original machine, a single wheel controlled eight spindles rather than the single spindle on conventional spinning wheels. Later versions had upwards of eighty spindles. Spinners were suspicious of Hargreaves' invention, believing that it would enable mill owners to employ less workers.
© Ann Ronan Picture Library / Heritage-Images
'The Lace Maker', c1664. Artist: Jan Vermeer
'The Lace Maker', c1664. The woman is making pillow lace which uses a strip of parchment on which the pattern has been pricked out. This is pinned to the pillow and the thread wound round the bobbins is worked round the pins. From the collection of the Louvre, Paris.
© Art Media / Heritage-Images
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'The Angler's Return', 1859
'The Angler's Return', 1859. This cartoon depicts Derby on the left in country tweeds with matching crown, and Disraeli on the right in boots with his rods slung across his back, as two fishermen returning from their outing. Derby has been fishing for votes in the counties, and Disraeli has returned from the boroughs. Sadly, for all their efforts neither of them has caught anything larger than a sprat. In the General Election of 1859 that followed the defeat of Disraeli's Reform Bill, the Conservatives made gains of some 30 seats. However, this was still not sufficient to give Derby a working majority. From Punch, or the London Charivari, May 21, 1859.
© The Print Collector / Heritage-Images